What is magnetism and what properties affect magnets?

Magnetism is affected by the different magnetic fields that are created from elementary magnets and their alignments.

What is magnetism?

Magnetism is a property of certain materials, such as iron, nickel and cobalt, in order to generate magnetic fields in the magnetized state. These magnetic fields cause forces on all magnetic substances that come close to them. Magnetic properties occur when the elemental magnets of magnetic materials are unilaterally aligned. The small dipoles of elementary magnets already have a north pole and a south pole. The juxtaposition of these small north and south poles causes an amplification of the effects of the magnetic force, which have an effect on a magnetic field.



Magnets and their properties

Magnetic properties can occur with all materials. However, there are significant differences in the strength of these properties for different materials. The magnetic effects of ferromagnetic materials (iron, nickel, cobalt and their alloys) are more pronounced. This is due to the fact that the ability to unilaterally align their elemental magnets is the most pronounced for ferromagnetic materials. In addition to ferromagnetic materials, there are still some rare earth metals, such as samarium and neodymium, which also have strong magnetic properties. Neodymium magnets have the strongest magnetic properties and consequently generate the strongest magnetic fields. Besides ferromagnetism, there is still much weaker diamagnetism and also much weaker paramagnetism. However, the effects of diamagnetism and paramagnetism are so weak that they can only be detected with very sensitive measuring devices. In diamagnetism, the most prominent representative of which is bismuth, there is a slight repulsion to other magnetic particles. For some materials, magnetic phenomena are only detectable when excited by an external magnetic field. However, if the external magnetic field disappears again, the magnetic phenomena of these substances are no longer present. It is then paramagnetism.

All common permanent magnets used for a variety of purposes are ferromagnetic materials, their alloys or the rare earth metals samarium and neodymium.


Neodymium magnets and their influence on other magnets.

Each permanent magnet is surrounded by a magnetic field. This can be considered as a force field with invisible lines running out of the permanent magnet from the north pole to the south pole and back into the body of the magnet. These are closed magnetic field lines. When a permanent magnet comes under the influence of an external magnetic field, the magnetic field of the permanent magnet becomes stronger or weaker. Due to the dipole nature of magnetic field sources, the effect on permanent magnets always depends on whether and to what extent their elementary magnets deviate in their direction. With a strong deflection of the dipoles of the permanent magnet, the magnetic properties of the permanent magnet can be considerably weakened.


The cause of the formation of magnetic fields lies in the rotating electric charges, which are generated by electrons. Electrons tend to pair and also have a spin, which is also known as a spin quantum number. According to the Pauli principle, two electrons can never have the same spin. The distinction of energy states by spin causes the two electrons to cancel each other out. However, the magnetic effects of substances occur because some atoms have one or more unpaired electrons. The sum of the individual spins of these electrons eventually leads to an imbalance in the magnetic effects, which can generate a magnetic field.

The field of magnetism with all its effects is part of our field of work, which we not only have to deal with on a daily basis, but we have acquired a great deal of experience based on our many years of employment. Take advantage of our knowledge and take advantage of our help to solve your magnetic problems.

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