What is magnetization?
In this article you will find information about how to magnetize products such as magnets or magnetic systems and the different types.
What is magnetizing?
Each ferromagnetic substance consists of small elementary magnets. Elementary magnets already have a north pole and a south pole. There is no single polarization.
In the non-magnetized state, these elemental magnets are very disordered, so their magnetic effects cancel each other out by dipoles pointing in all directions. The non-magnetized body does not show any magnetic property towards the outside. By applying an external magnetic field to the body to be magnetized, its elementary magnets begin to settle in one direction. Therefore, there is an accumulation of the magnetic properties of the individual dipoles. This has the consequence that the magnetized body now also has magnetic properties on the outside.
How to magnetize magnets?
The magnetization of subsequent permanent magnets is only possible with ferromagnetic materials, iron, nickel, cobalt and their alloys. The magnetizing body is exposed to an external magnetic field. This is usually done in the form of a coil, because it can vary the magnetic field in its intensity by changing the voltage and current. The external magnetic field causes an immediate alignment of the elementary magnets, which still remain when turned off again. The electrons of the atoms in the atomic layer enhance magnetic properties, more precisely, of their electronic rotation. The electron spin gives the elemental magnet its dipole properties. According to Pauli's principle, two electrons of an atom must differ by at least one quantum number. The occupation of the electrons in the atom layer according to the Pauli principle is the guarantee that the atom is magnetically neutral on the outside.
However, it is precisely in ferromagnetism when it is desirable to break this magnetic neutrality of the atoms in such a way that the orientation of the dipoles of the elementary magnets leads to an accumulation of their magnetic forces. Between the individual dipoles acts a force that has a stabilizing effect on their geometrical preservation of directional equality. The stabilizing effect of dipole alignment is still maintained in ferromagnetic materials, even if the external magnetic field that caused the magnetization is turned off again. This particular stability of the magnetic properties in relation to the stabilizing force between the elemental dipoles is called exchange interaction. This phenomenon shows all ferromagnetic substances.
Magnetizers and other ImagnetShop products.
There are two different methods for magnetizing permanent magnets, static magnetization and pulse magnetization. With the help of static magnetization, only smaller magnetic fields can be generated. Pulse magnetization is used when a strong magnetic field is required to magnetize strong magnets. Like a magnetizer, it acts like a coil, in which the magnets are individually magnetized or repeatedly placed in a very specific position and arrangement. As a result, it is possible to give the magnet or magnets very specific properties that one wishes to achieve.
A distinction is made between ferromagnetism, paramagnetism and diamagnetism. The strongest magnetic properties are ferromagnetic materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt and some of their alloys. An important parameter in the field of magnetism is the relative permeability μ r . This parameter μ r makes a significant statement about the possible improvement of the magnetic properties of different substances. Ferromagnetic substances have a μ r >> 1. Paramagnetic substances, such as platinum, aluminium, air have a μ r which is only slightly above 1. This has the consequence that these substances only have a very slight reinforcing effect on their magnetic properties. Diamagnetic substances such as silver, copper and bismuth have a value of μ r less than 1. This means that these substances have a slightly weakening effect on their magnetic field.
Both to solve your problems and to answer your questions in the field of magnetism, we would like to help you with our experience and our advice. Feel free to contact us at any time.